what's here

List of Upper Body muscle moves for skating (with no poling).

see also

other muscle groups

compare with other sports

related topics

  

[ under construction ] 

 


Introduction

This page lists the Upper Body muscle moves available to do actual physical work for forward propulsion in skating:

  • not moves just prepare the configuration of bones and joints so that other muscles can do propulsion work.

  • not moves which do some positive work, which is then cancelled by an equal amount of negative work which is normally required to be attached to that move.

This list of muscle moves is not the "right" way to skate. Rather it offers a set of options. Few skaters use all these muscle moves, and I doubt there is any skater who uses all of them all the time.

The main purpose of this analysis is to expose skaters and skate instructors to more choices -- more variety and more freedom. It's up to each skater and coach to work out which subset of these is best for them in each situation, and in what "proportion" to emphasize each move in their chosen subset.

A key puzzle of learning skating technique is how to manage the complexity of these possibilities. A gifted instructor helps each learning skater find simplifications that are appropriate for their current needs and goals.

Why this list matters

see discussion on the Leg muscle moves page.

Complexity of Upper Body muscle moves for skating

?? There are also 5-7 more muscles with distinct functional roles in the upper body which available to add forward-propulsion work in normal skating (without using ski poles to help push):

?? see below

Arm swing moves

 

Side-swing of arms

Muscle moves:

  • side-swing of entire arm inward from shoulder, and
  • side-swing of entire arm outward from shoulder
  • side-swing of forearm inward from elbow joint, and
  • side-swing of forearm from elbow joint in outward direction

??[ kinesiology terminology ]

Phases:

  • for normal-push: in Phase 1 and again in Phase 3.

Actually each of these is two distinct muscle moves, one for each arm -- since the swing direction is inward for one arm and outward for the other, each using different muscles.

 

[ more to be added ]

 

Up-Down component of arm swing

Complication:  Most up-down moves of the arms are closely associated with side-swing and forward-backward moves -- and the inter-relationship cross-impact is strongly dependent on timing and current body-configuration. For more on how to manage this complexity:

see Coordinating 3 dimensions of Upper Body moves

For the arm-swing moves, we are choosing to focus our analysis mainly on the side-swing and forward-backward components.

 

[ more discussion to be added ]

 

Forward-Backward swing of arms

Muscle moves

  • scapula-adduction -- move shoulder backward relative to spine.

  • scapula-abduction -- shoulder reach forward relative to spine.

  • ?? forward-backward component to arm-swing

??[ add to count for double-push ]

??[ kinesiology terminology ]

Useful mostly only for double-push stroking or some variations of normal-push. Very little net propulsive benefit for simple "straight-stroke-path" normal-push

 

[ more discussion to be added ]

 

Torso moves

Side-swing of torso

muscle moves

timed for reactive side-force

  • abdomen-torso side-swing

  • chest-shoulder side-swing

  • neck lateral-flexion

phases

  • for normal-push: in Phase 1 and again in Phase 3.

 

[ more discussion to be added ]

 

Up-Down moves of Torso

Complication:  Many up-down moves of the torso also have forward-backward components -- and in typical propulsive-motion configurations the propulsive-work impact of these two dimensions is somewhat contradictory. For more on how to manage this problem:

see Coordinating 3 dimensions of Upper Body moves

muscle moves

  • mid-abdomen-flexion -- flex the upper body forward at the level of the top of the pelvic girdle, about the level of upper “points” out on the sides of the pelvic girdle. (This level is several inches above the level of the hip-flexion move, and several inches below the level of the upper-abdomen-chest-flexion move)

  • lower-back-extension -- the move of stopping the falling and then raising the mass of upper body applies beneficial reactive down-force thru the leg. This move is the opposite of the mid-abdomen-flexion move.  Flex the upper body backward at the level of the top of the pelvic girdle, about the level of upper “points” out on the sides of the pelvic girdle. (This level is several inches above the level of the hip-extension move, and several inches below the level of the upper-back-extension move)

  • upper-abdomen-chest-flexion -- ("chest crunch") -- flex the upper body forward just under the rib cage.

  • upper-back-extension -- This move is the opposite of the upper-abdomen-chest-flexion move. The "axis" of motion is about the same vertical level as the bottom of the rib cage.

  • neck-flexion

  • neck-extension

??[ kinesiology terminology ]

phases

  • for normal-push: mainly in Phase 3.

 

[ more discussion to be added ]

   

Forward-Backward moves of Torso

Complication:  Many forward-backward moves of the torso also have up-down components -- and in typical propulsive-motion configurations the propulsive-work impact of these two dimensions is somewhat contradictory. For more on how to manage this problem:

see Coordinating 3 dimensions of Upper Body moves

muscle moves

  • ?? forward-backward move of torso + shoulders -- useful mostly only for double-push.

??[ kinesiology terminology ]

??[ add to count for double-push ]

Useful mostly only for double-push stroking or some variations of normal-push. Very little net propulsive benefit for simple "straight-ground-trace" normal-push

 

[ more discussion to be added ]

 

more . . .

see also

other muscle groups

compare with other sports

related topics